Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions decrease as coal and peat in electricity is phased out

  • Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 4.5 per cent in 2019. This is the largest annual reduction in emissions since 2011.
  • Despite the decrease, Ireland is still not on the pathway required to meet future targets and a climate neutral economy.
  • Energy Industries emissions decreased by 11 per cent with a significant decrease in coal (69 per cent) and peat (8 per cent) used.
  • Agriculture emissions decreased by 3.9 per cent, driven by reduced fertiliser use and lime use on soils.
  • Residential emissions reduced by 7.3 per cent, largely the result of a warmer winter.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector reduced only marginally despite an increase in biofuel use. 

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as the competent authority for reporting Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions, has today published its provisional greenhouse gas emissions for Ireland for 2019. The figures show a reduction of 4.5 per cent compared to 2018, which is the largest decrease since 2011. Significant emission reductions are recorded for the Energy Industries, Agriculture and Residential sectors. These decreases come despite modest growth in the domestic economy of 1.7 per cent over the year.

However, the figures indicate that Ireland will exceed its 2019 annual EU emissions allocation by 6.98Mt which makes it highly unlikely that Ireland will meet its overall 2020 targets, even taking the impact of Covid 19 on emissions in 2020 into account.

Commenting on the figures Laura Burke, Director General, EPA said:

“This much needed reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is a welcome step in the right direction. The figures show that emissions reductions can be achieved and in 2019 there have been reductions in power generation, agriculture and residential sectors. However, if the 2020s are to be the decade of climate action, this level of emission reductions, at a minimum, will be required annually. Therefore, these reductions need to be built on to achieve continual, substantial, year-on-year emissions reductions. It will take the implementation of effective measures, including all those committed to in the Climate Action Plan, to put Ireland on the pathway to a climate neutral future “.

The emission reductions have been driven by a number of factors across the sectors including:

Energy Industries: Emissions in the Energy Industries sector showed a decrease of 11.2 per cent (1.19 Mt CO2eq) in 2019, which is attributable to a 69 per cent decrease in coal and an 8 per cent decrease in peat used in electricity generation. Electricity generated from wind increased by 16.0 per cent in 2019, with renewables accounting for 37.6 per cent of electricity generated. After 2020, a continued increase in renewable generation levels will be required to meet ambitious future greenhouse gas targets.

Agriculture: Agriculture emissions decreased by 3.9 per cent (0.86 Mt CO2eq) in 2019. This was driven by reduced fertiliser use (down 10.1 per cent) and a reduction in the quantity of lime used on soils (down 25.4 per cent), which had both increased substantially the previous year.  Other key drivers of emissions in agriculture, such as the number of dairy cows, continued to rise.

Residential: Emissions in the Residential sector decreased by 7.3 per cent (0.52 Mt of CO2eq) in 2019 with the warmer winter resulting in decreased use of fuels. However, emissions per household have plateaued in recent years which indicates a need to step up energy efficiency retrofit activity to achieve future emission reduction commitments.

Transport: Greenhouse gas emissions from the Transport sector decreased slightly, by 0.3 per cent (0.04 Mt CO2eq), in 2019. An increased demand for transport largely offset more biofuel use which was up 21.9% in 2019. Reducing transport emissions requires a blend of measures such as more cycling and walking as well as new technologies such as electric vehicles and biofuels.

Commenting, Stephen Treacy, Senior Manager, EPA said:

“These 2019 figures illustrate where our economy and emissions were heading before the COVID-19 pandemic. While, 2020 is likely to see a reduction in emissions caused by the impact of the pandemic, this does not negate the need for long term and sustained action. Focusing on climate action as part of a ‘green’ recovery offers the opportunity to respond to climate change while rebuilding our economy and generating new jobs.”

Full detail on the Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory 1990 to 2019 is available on the EPA website and the EPA Greenhouse Gas web resource is also available online.

Tables and Notes

An overview of changes in emissions since the previous year is presented in Table 1 and distance to EU targets in Table 2.

More trend figures, tables and background information is available online.

Table 1. Provisional greenhouse gas emissions for 2018 and 2019 for Ireland*

Mt COeq20182019% Change
Energy Industries10.639.45-11.2%
Manufacturing Combustion4.694.59-2.0%
Industrial Processes2.302.26-1.5%
Commercial Services0.880.891.8%
Public Services0.880.891.2%

* Final figures will be submitted to the EU and UN in March and April 2021 in line with the agreed reporting timetable.

Table 2. Compliance with EU Effort Sharing Decision Targets 2013-2020

ATotal greenhouse gas emissions without LULUCF157,90357,62659,87861,54660,74460,91259,8970kt CO2eq
BNF3 emissions11111110kt CO2eq
CTotal greenhouse gas emissions without LULUCF and without NF3 emissions57,90257,62559,87761,54560,74260,91159,8960kt CO2eq
DTotal verified emissions from stationary installations under Directive 2003/87/EC215,68615,95316,83017,73716,89615,51514,1710kt CO2eq
ECO2 emissions from 1.A.3.a. domestic aviation10910101717170kt CO2eq
FTotal ESD emissions (= C-D-E)42,20741,66343,03743,79843,82945,37945,7070kt CO2eq
GEU ESD Targets46,89245,76144,63043,49940,88539,80738,72937,651kt CO2eq
 Distance to target (= F-G)-4,685-4,098-1,5932992,9445,5716,978kt CO2eq

Note: Shaded cells show data that has been reviewed, and compliance agreed, by the European Commission under Article 19 of the MMR No. 525/2013


Units: 1 Mt = 1,000 kilotonnes

CO2 Equivalent: greenhouse gases other than CO2 (i.e. methane, nitrous oxide and so-called F-gases) may be converted to CO2 equivalent using their global warming potentials. 

F-gases: These gases comprise HFCs (Hydroflurocarbons), PFCs (Perfluorcarbons), SF6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) and NF3 (Nitrogen Trifluoride).  They are much more potent than the naturally occurring greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide).

Ireland’s Greenhouse Gas Sectors:  include the following ten sectors for analysis;

  1. Energy Industries (electricity generation, waste to energy incineration, oil refining, briquetting manufacture and fugitive emissions)
  2. Residential (combustion for domestic space and hot water heating)
  3. Manufacturing Combustion (combustion for Manufacturing industries in ETS and non-ETS)
  4. Commercial Services (combustion for Commercial Services space and hot water heating)
  5. Public Services (combustion for Public services space and hot water heating)
  6. Transport (combustion of fuel used in road, rail, navigation, domestic aviation and pipeline gas transport)
  7. Industrial Processes (process emissions from mineral, chemical, metal industries, non-energy products and solvents)
  8. F-Gases (gases used in refrigeration, air conditioning and semiconductor manufacture)
  9. Agriculture (emissions from fertiliser application, ruminant digestion, manure management, agricultural soils and fuel used in agriculture/forestry/fishing)
  10. Waste (emissions from solid waste disposal on land, solid waste treatment (composting), wastewater treatment, waste incineration and open burning of waste).

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